End-Use Studies Multiple Technologies

Millenium Dome Report on Water Efficiency-“Watercycle” (2002)
Thames Water’s “Watercycle” project at the Millennium Dome in London was one of the largest in-building recycling schemes in Europe, designed to supply up to 130,000 gallons per day of reclaimed water for toilet and urinal flushing. It catered to over 6 million visitors in the year 2000. Overall, 55% of the water demand at the Dome was met by reclaimed water. The Dome was also the site of one of the most comprehensive studies ever carried out of water conservation in a public environment, evaluating a range of water efficient appliances and researching visitor perceptions of reclaimed water. Of particular interest is Figure 6 in the report which shows washroom water use for handwashing and compares infra-red sensor-operated faucets with “push top” (cycling) faucets and conventional swivel top faucets.
- Millenium Dome Summary Report (PDF)

Water Conservation Opportunities in Federal Facilities (2005)
The U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), commissioned a study updating previous work from 2001 identifying water conservation opportunities in the Federal sector. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed the update study and this comprehensive report looks at the cost-effectiveness of a variety of strategies for water conservation. Both Department of Defense and Civilian agencies were included. Download the complete study:
- Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector

Effectiveness of Data Logging Residential Water Meters to Identify and Quantify Toilet Flush Volumes: A Pilot Study (2004)
This study examines the potential to mis-identify toilets and their flush volumes when using data loggers to monitor water use within a residential dwelling. Conducted in June, 2004, on behalf of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, this study's final report was released for public distribution.

NOTE: Because of the nature of the conclusions and recommendations within the study, Aquacraft, Inc., a proponent of the use of this technology along with their Trace Wizard© software, provided a response explaining how identification issues are dealt with through the most recent version of the software. You are urged to download and read both documents:
- Data Logging Residential Water Meters (PDF)
- Discussion and Response by Aquacraft, Inc. (PDF)

National Multiple Family Submetering and Allocation Billing Program Study (2004)
The National Submetering study was completed in 2004 by Aquacraft Inc. and represents a great step forward in understanding the trend toward practices now being undertaken by apartment owners all over the U.S. In fact, more and more buildings in the multi-family housing sector are incorporating systems wherein each multi-family dwelling unit pays for water and wastewater directly instead of including these charges as part of the rent. It is estimated that more than 1.2 million apartment renter households are billed separately for water and sewer using one of these billing system methods. This study identifies the merits of separate billing programs including the potential water savings, costs and benefits from various perspectives, and the accompanying administrative and regulatory issues. In the study, a retrospective analysis of water use in multi-family properties in 13 cities was conducted.

Go to Aquacraft's website: http://www.aquacraft.com

OR, download all or part of the study:
- Full final report - 6.4 MB (PDF)
- Full final report WITHOUT the appendix - 2.5 MB (PDF)
- Executive Summary only - 0.4 MB (PDF)

Consumer Purchasing Decisions for Swimming Pool Covers (2004)
A field survey and study commissioned by the Inland Empire Utilities Agency (and with funding by the Metropolitan Water District's Innovative Conservation Program) revealed consumer habits regarding their purchase of rebated pool covers.
- Pool Cover Study (PDF)

Three Residential Water Use Studies (2000, 2003, 2004)
Three studies of water use within single family residential dwellings are now complete and available. These studies were funded by the U.S. EPA and supported by local water utilities in whose service area the field measurements took place. Interventions designed to provide important information on water-conserving plumbing fixtures and appliances involved retrofit and replacement of toilet fixtures, showerheads, faucets and clothes washers. The final reports present before-and-after paired comparisons of water use patterns in 96 households within the service areas of Seattle Public Utilities (37 homes), East Bay Municipal Utility District (33 homes), and Tampa Water Department (26 homes). Among the water-efficient products replacing non-efficient models within the 96 households were:

  • Clothes washers: Frigidaire Gallery, Maytag Neptune, Whirlpool Super Capacity Plus, Duet, and Calypso, Fisher & Paykel EcoSmartToilet fixtures: Caroma Caravelle dual-flush, Niagara Flapperless, Toto DrakeShowerheads: Niagara Earth Massage, Brass Craft, AM Conservation SpoilerFaucets: Delta e-Flow Electronic
  • Kitchen Faucet Controller: Aqua-Lean

Download the reports to learn more about the water savings resulting from fixture and appliance replacements:
- Final Report: Seattle Public Utilities (PDF)
- Final Report: East Bay MUD (PDF)
- Final Report: Tampa Water Department (PDF)
(NOTE: Each of these PDF files is approximately 2 mb in size. If you have difficulty opening a file, right click on the hyperlink, select "Save Target As..." from the menu and save to your computer.)

SWEEP Residential Study (2003)
In 1999 and 2000, two communities in Oregon volunteered to participate in a study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Termed the Save Water and Energy Education Program (SWEEP), PNNL arranged for 50 test homes in the two communities to receive new efficient clothes washers, clothes dryers, dishwashers, toilets, showerheads, and aerators. PNNL evaluated energy and water usage and savings achieved by end-use metering of consumption.
- SWEEP Study Report (PDF)

Cooling Towers in Supermarkets (2003)
This Aquacraft study investigated the potential water savings opportunities through the application of advanced water treatment on typical urban supermarket cooling systems. Water use patterns in the remainder of the store were also investigated as a secondary subject. The goal of the study was to quantify the water saving potential and the economic feasibility of advanced water treatment in cooling systems, and to look for water saving opportunities in the other water uses in the stores. Download the full study report:
- Cooling Towers-Supermarkets Report (PDF)